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Dr Rasool received a one year fellowship, extendable for three years, to work with Dr. R. Jastrow in 1961.

The NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) is a laboratory in NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center’s Earth Science Division, which is part of GSFC’s Sciences and Exploration Directorate. Following approval by NASA Administrator T. Keith Glennan in December 1960, the institute was established by Dr. Robert Jastrow in May 1961 as a New York City office of GSFC’s Theoretical Division to do basic research in space sciences in support of Goddard programs. Much of the institute’s early work involved study of planetary atmospheres using data collected by telescopes and space probes, and in time that led to GISS becoming a leading center of atmospheric modeling and of climate change.




Physics of the Solar System

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Introduction to Solar Physics

Internal Rotation of the Sun

A History of Solar Rotation

Dynamics of the Outer Solar Atmosphere

The Interplanetary Plasma Lower Atmospheres of the Planets

The Composition of Planetary Atmospheres

Interior Structure of Giant Planets

Radar and Radio Exploration of the Planets

Nature and Interpretation of the Apollo 11

Lunar Samples

Origin of the Solar System

Evolution of Planetary Atmospheres

History of the Lunar Orbit

Publisher: University Press of the Pacific (February 14, 2005)

Author: NASA

Editor: S.I. Rasool



The Cloud-Seeding Trials in the Central Punjab

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D’albe, E. M. F., Lateef, A. M. A., Rasool, S. I. and Zaidi, I. H. (1955)

Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 81: 574–581

Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society

Expirements to test the influence of dispersal of salt particles from the ground on rainfall amount and distribution were carried out in the Central Punjab between July 16 and September 15, 1954.



Facing Climate Change Together

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The vast majority of climate scientists now agree that human-induced climate change is a reality, but there is much ongoing research and debate. Nevertheless, our global society is confronted with the urgent need for a wise response to potential climate change. This volume brings together scientists from the US and Europe to review the state of the art in climate change science. It draws from the most recent assessment reports of the IPCC, but scientific jargon has been minimized for readers from different backgrounds. Each chapter provides a description of a particular aspect of the climate problem, its role in current climate change, its potential future impacts, and its societal importance. This book is written for scientists and students in a wide range of fields, such as atmospheric science, physics, chemistry, biology, geography, geology and socioeconomics, who are seeking a coherent and broad review of climate change issues.

Cambridge University Press 2008

Edited by Catherine Gautier,University of California, Santa Barbara
Jean-Louis Fellous, European Space Agency
Conclusions S. Ichtiaque Rasool and Jean-Claude Duplessy


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The mission of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) is to expand human knowledge and benefit society through research integrated with education. They investigate the most challenging, fundamental problems in science and technology in a singularly collegial, interdisciplinary atmosphere, while educating outstanding students to become creative members of society.

With an outstanding faculty, including five Nobel laureates, and such off-campus facilities as the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the W.M. Keck and Palomar observatories, the California Institute of Technology is one of the world’s preeminent institutions of science and engineering.

Ichtiaque Rasool was a distinguished visiting Scientist at Caltech’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory and a visiting associate in planetary science on the campus.



The Runaway Greenhouse and the Accumulation of CO2 in the Venus Atmosphere

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S.I. Rasool and C. De Bergh, 1970

Nature, volume 226, pages 1037-1039

Although Venus and the Earth are similar in size and mass, are adjacent in the solar system and were probably formed out of the same homogenous mix of gas and dust about 4.5 billion years ago, their atmospheres and surface conditions differ markedly. For example, the atmosphere of Venus is ~75 times more massive than that of the Earth and is largely composed of carbon dioxide, a gas which constitutes only 0.03 percent of the Earth’s atmosphere. The Venus atmosphere seems to be deficient in water, with respect to Earth, by as much as a factor of 104. The surface temperature of Venus is 700 K.

We believe that the chief differences can be explained by the single circumstance that venus was formed 30 percent closer to the Sun. If the Earth had formed only 6 to 10 million km nearer to the Sun, it may also have become a hot and sterile planet. As for Mars, it seems that is the relative smallness of its size and mass — a weaker internal activity — which has slowed its progress towards accumulating an Earth-type atmosphere and oceans.

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The Atmosphere of Mercury

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Space Science Reviews
Volume 5, Number 5

Rasool, S.I., S.H. Gross, and W.E. McGovern, 1966:  565-584

It is the purpose of this paper to review the available information on the temperature, composition, and surface pressure of Mercury’s atmosphere, and to discuss the implications of a non-synchronous rotation of the planet on the atmosphere. We construct several models for the atmosphere which are consistent with the observations in an attempt to determine if they are stable against depletion of the atmosphere by gravtiational escape. The results are discusssed from the standpoint of the origin of the atmosphere.

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